Brieuc Bougnoux, Futuribles, 2011

In the current context of a continuous, sustained rise in the price of fossil fuels and a battle against climate change, are there credible alternatives in the field of road transport to the internal combustion engine? Some manufacturers in the area of private transport are investing in electric vehicles – where battery performance is improving (though this remains a niche market) – and in hybrid engines. In goods transport, matters are a little more tricky, given the length of journeys and the power required. There too, however, according to Brieuc Bougnoux, the use of electrical vehicles could be an option for the future, by way of the electrification of the road network. Bougnoux outlines the technical features of such an option, the cost of its implementation and the – environmental, financial and infrastructure – advantages a country like France might derive from it. This is a route that is certainly worthy of interest, but would require coordination with European partners whose road hauliers also use the French road network.

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Claus Doll. August 2008.

The current debate on climate gas emission targets and on CO2 emission limits of motor vehicles call for advanced technical as well as non-technical concepts. Among the latter traffic demand management, pricing and regulatory measures, including speed limits and infrastructure access control, provide possible solutions. Technical solutions constitute an important component in solving future climate and environmental problems caused by transport. Technological and political solutions do not exclude, but complement each other.

One of the intensively discussed technical solutions are combined fossil fuel and battery powered acceleration systems. These hybrid  electric vehicles (HEVs) allow driving quietly and locally emission-free because the internal combustion engine is run in a more favorable load range, while the highly efficient electric motor supports at low speeds and in acceleration phases. Further reductions in fuel consumption are achieved by down sizing the combustion engine and by recuperating brake energy back into the battery

Electric motors are constantly energy efficient across a wide range of engine speeds while combustion engines are less efficient at low speeds. Electric motors  can thus either support the internal combustion engine  while starting or accelerating the vehicle or may fully take over vehicle propulsion in certain situations.

Electric energy storage on board is one of the key issues for designing hybrid vehicles. Due to safety reasons contemporary models use nickel-metal hybrid (NMH) batteries. But advances in the safety and durability of lithium-ion batteries promise an extended range of the electric power train and thus more efficient hybrid or pure battery powered vehicles. The plug-in hybrid concept uses the electric motor for driving purposes only and fuels the battery via the electricity grid network.

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David Jeffery, Transport Research Group, University of Southampton, June 2010.
Report from the NICHES+ Project (funded by the DG Research under the 7FP)

Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) is a form of public transport (PT) that uses small automated electric ‘podcars’ to: provide a taxi-like service for individuals or small groups of travellers; and provide demand responsive feeder and shuttle services connecting facilities such as parking lots with major transport terminals and other facilities such as shopping or exhibition centres.

The podcars run on a segregated guideway in order to ensure unhindered direct trips between origin and destination. They provide clean, green, efficient and sustainable transportation. With high vehicle speeds and very small headways, PRT provides fast, individual, on-demand and point-to-point PT with very short waiting times.

Aims to be the world’s first carbon neutral, zero-waste to landfill, car-free city powered entirely by alternative energy sources. Masdar City will be built on six and a half square kilometres and will grow eventually to house 1,500 businesses, 40,000 residents and 50,000 commuters. There will be no fossil fuel cars within Masdar City. The city will be a pedestrian-friendly environment, with a Personal Rapid Transit system (PRT) available for longer journeys.  The PRT vehicles will travel at speeds up to 40km/h, with the longest routes in the city taking around 10 minutes. Ultimately there will be 3,000 PRT vehicles serving 130,000 trips/day over the 85 stations.

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An LPG Industry Roadmap

To transform the transport system of the future into a sustainable, diverse and economically thriving aspect of the European Community, Europe should use all the tools at its disposal. In this context, AEGPL highlights the desirability of an EU-level Directive or Action Plan on Alternative Gaseous Fuels, stimulating the development of not only Autogas but gaseous fuels in general for the road transport sector. Autogas is a clean and immediately available alternative with a genuine role to play in the European transport fuel mix of today and tomorrow. In the context of volatile fuel prices and concerns over security of supply, air quality, climate change, and the ongoing global economic crisis, Europe will need to make optimum use of all available energy resources. In a debate that is too often polarized, with unsustainable dependence on conventional fuels and a rapid transition toward unavailable or unproven technologies presented as the only options, Autogas represents a ‘third way’, helping to bridge the gap and easing Europe’s transition to a low-carbon economy.

5 quick facts about autogas

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Volker H.Rosenkranz
Innovación Logí­stica SL, 2008

Cargo express is a concept of a patented Catamaran style Container Ship with on-board loading equipment and very low fuel consumption. The goal is to serve small and medium size European and African Ports with reliable routes and provide feeder service to the Mega-Terminals and River-Ports. The next step would see the construction of a real-scale experimental prototype to set the bases for a new European Standard Freighter. Large scale production should start after 2010.

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Secretary-General of the European Commission

The Intelligent Vehicle Systems already available today can lead to further reductions in the number of fatalities, important relief of congestion in cities and inter-urban corridors as well as significant reductions in pollutant emissions and greenhouse gases. The Intelligent Car Initiative will continue to use its three pillars in order to support the deployment of intelligent mobility in Europe.

Center for Automotive Research (CAR). December 2006.

The purpose of the study is to conduct a preliminary investigation into the future business potential for automotive electronics, particularly for general Taiwanese companies. Although many Taiwanese companies are targeting China as a growth opportunity, our preliminary investigation was based on North America with the understanding that a more targeted investigation for China could be a future investigation.

Invensys Rail Group. November 2007.

Over the last 10 years road traffic, in vehicle km, has increased by 1.5% p.a. and demand for road space has also increased. It is projected that traffic levels will increase 1.4% p.a. between 2000 and 2025.Demand for rail has increased in recent years. Passenger demand is predicted to increase by 2.7% p.a. by 2014. However this could even be higher and Network Rail in its recent Strategic Business Plan has suggested that growth could be as high as 6-7%. Rail capacity needs to be increased, both in order to meet current demand levels, and in order to meet future demand growth.

Lance Winslow. April 26, 2007

Technological advances in the trucking industry are moving ahead at a very rapid pace and this is due to several reasons. Much of the innovation is coming from industry to squeeze out more productivity and achieve greater economies of scale in a quest for efficiency and profits. Some of the innovation is coming from environmental movements and regulations to prevent pollution. Still many new technologies are born out of safety issues and together for all these reasons we see research and development in the transportation sector we find adequate money flows for both radical new ideas and incremental increases in current technologies; the is lots R&D in Trucking.

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European Commission Joint Research Centre and Institute for Prospective Technological Studies.  May 2003

The objective of the study was to review the past trends and anticipate future developments in vehicle and fuel technologies, in relation mainly to passenger transport. The study provides an overview of the trends in the main families of conventional and alternative technologies and fuels, covering the evolution of their main technical characteristics, fuel economy, user costs (variable and fixed) and environmental impacts. As regards the anticipation of future developments, the main research issues were identified and projections of the possible development of the above variables were made, based on the results of ongoing research activities world-wide.

Baseline scenario

The baseline scenario is used as the reference case. It corresponds to the outlook for each technology if the current trends in demand are sustained, if fuel and vehicle prices and fuel economy follow the path predicted by current surveys of trends in vehicle technologies, and if no significant policy measure is implemented. According to the baseline scenario, no clear winner among the non-conventional technologies is identified. Fuel cells are expected to become an option only at the end of the 2010’s, while electric vehicles seem capable of securing a niche. Hybrids may play an interim role in the transition between ICEs to fuel cells. Total demand in the passenger car sector (expressed in total number of vehicle kms) is expected to rise (though slower than GDP growth). CO2 emissions from passenger cars are expected to show a slight increase by 2010 (3%) and a reduction of 13% by 2020. This is the combined result of the improvement of conventional technologies, the gradual removal of older cars from the fleet, and the introduction of alternative technologies.

High Oil Scenario

In the high oil scenario an increase of the price of oil is assumed. The increase is applied to the fuel prices predicted by the POLES model during the whole period of the simulation. As a reference, the price increase is considered to be equal to 28% (that would correspond to an increase from 25 to 32 US$ per barrel). Such an increase would have a minimal impact in the medium term (up to 2010), since the alternative technologies would not be mature enough (i.e. have competing costs) by then to benefit and increase their share. In the longer term, an increase in the price of oil would benefit the alternative technologies, since their difference from the conventional technologies in terms of variable cost would become smaller. As regards the conventional technologies, higher oil prices would reinforce the shift from gasoline to diesel, as fuel economy becomes a decisive factor. A higher oil price would also slow down growth in transport demand. The slower growth in demand, combined with the shift towards alternatives and more efficient vehicles, would also lead to further reductions in CO2 emissions. The high oil scenario is also equivalent to a fuel tax scenario, i.e. the same results would appear if fuel taxes were raised by 28%. 

Low Oil Scenario

The low oil scenario corresponds to the opposite case of the high oil scenario. A decrease of the price of oil by 28% is assumed (e.g. from 25 to 18 US$ per barrel). The results have in general the opposite direction of those for high oil:  the introduction of alternative technologies is delayed and gasoline remains the most attractive option. Transport demand would increase, though still slower than GDP growth (saturation levels are reached). CO2 emissions would increase significantly by 2010 and in the long term brought down to the levels of 2000 as a result of improved technology. 

Carbon Tax 50 Scenario

In the carbon tax 50 scenario, carbon content related tax equivalent to 50 euros per ton of CO2 is imposed. The difference from the high oil price scenario (that also corresponds to imposing a fuel tax) is that it affects gasoline and diesel in a different manner. Diesel has higher carbon content and is cheaper than gasoline. So while this carbon tax would mean an increase of gasoline prices by 12%, it would mean double the increase for diesel prices. As a result, although the results have the same direction as the results in the high oil scenario as regards the penetration of alternative technologies, they strongly favour gasoline as compared to diesel.

Carbon Tax 100 Scenario

The carbon tax 100 scenario assumes a carbon content tax equivalent to 100 euros per ton of CO2. At that level of carbon tax the results would be comparable to that of the high oil price scenario, with the exception that gasoline has an advantage over both diesel and fuel cells. The other two alternative options, electric and –mainly hybrid- would also benefit. 

Subsidy for electric, hybrid and fuel cells scenario

The three scenarios on subsidy for electric, hybrid and fuel cells correspond to a decrease of the purchase cost of each alternative technology by 2000 euros. This would decrease the price differential of these technologies compared to conventional technologies and accelerate their introduction. For electric, although its share is increased, this is not enough for the difference in costs to be covered. For hybrid and fuel cells, penetration is accelerated and each of the two can become an important technology by 2020. Subsidies would not have any significant impact on total transport demand, but would further marginally reduce CO2 emissions (except in the case of fuel cells). 

Zero Emissions Scenario 

The zero emissions scenario assumes the prohibition of conventional technologies in urban areas. This would favour hybrid vehicles in the medium term and all alternative technologies, in a proportional way, in the longer term. The main losers would be the light gasoline (and in the longer term, the light diesel) cars, since their predominantly urban role would be played by alternative technologies. This scenario also leads to a reduction in CO2 emissions, though lower than in the case of high oil or carbon tax 100, where restrictions are applied to the whole fleet.

Narayan, Iyer. May 2006.

Presentation from the Workshop on Climate Change Mitigation in the Transport Sector.

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Hirose Katsuhiko.Toyota Motor Corporation.
Geneva, 2002

Presentation about hybrid cars technology and its future.

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United States Department of Energy and United States Department of Transportation. December 2006.

The Hydrogen Fuel Initiative accelerates the pace of research and development on hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure technologies needed to support hydrogen-powered fuel cells for use in transportation and electricity generation. Working with industry, academia, and the national labs, the DOE developed a long-term plan for moving toward widespread implementation of hydrogen technologies — a solution that holds the potential to provide virtually limitless clean, safe, secure, affordable, and reliable energy from diverse domestic resources. Ultimately, hydrogen could become one of a diverse set of alternatives that will address the energy needs of the United States. To realize this goal, the Nation must develop and validate advanced hydrogen fuel cell and infrastructure technologies while continuing to promote complementary near-term energy efficiency and renewable energy solutions, such as ethanol and hybrid electric vehicles.

Download this file (Hydrogen_Posture_Plan.pdf)Hydrogen_Posture_Plan.pdf[ ]

This report provides information assessed by sustainability indexes and disclosure initiatives such as the United Nations Global Compact, Dow Jones Sustainability Index, Carbon Disclosure Project and by certain international and Canadian sustainability rating agencies. It also respects the reporting requirements of industry associations, specifically teh International Air Transport Association (IATA) and the International Association of Public Transport (UITP).

The Mobility Centres Network will create a European Network of know-how on sustainable mobility. The purpose of the exchange with other mobility centres will be to learn from each other and to optimise the implementation of local actions. The project has got a participatory evaluation approach and will produce a rich web site and a guidebook for setting up a Mobility Centre. The main tool in the project will be Mobility Centres that will offer two kinds of services: 1.-Approaching the public by establishing publicly accessible Info Points. They will deploy personalised information on alternatives to the private car, promote innovative solutions and encourage pilot implementations.2.-Addressing Companies (industries and services) and schools with local actions and mobility management services offered by the Info Points. This includes the coordination and optimisation of different mobility needs with the goal to make mobility more energy efficient.

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Measures to Influence transport Demand to Achieve Sustainability (MIDAS)

MIDAS looks at how to get people to change their travel habits and to use less energy intense modes of travel. The project started with a review of local transport and planning policies in six cities, to assess what policies have a positive impact on enabling a modal shift. For example: a modal shift from single occupancy private car use to car sharing on a regular basis, or to encourage the use of other more energy efficient transport modes such as walking, cycling and using public transport. MIDAS is being implemented by partners in 6 case study cities which are representative of a wide part of the enlarged Europe: Liverpool (UK), Aalborg (DK), Cork (IRL), Clermont Ferrand (FR), Bologna (IT) and Suceava (RO). The project uses innovative communication means to provide information and raise public awareness of environmental issues linked to car dependency. Those communication tools range from travel guides (Clermont Ferrand), a "sustainable mobility zone" (Bologna), "TravelWise" marketing campaigns (Liverpool), mobile touch screen information systems (Suceava), individualised marketing (Cork and Aalborg), to list a few.

Download this file (MIDAS_project.pdf)MIDAS_project.pdf[ ]

Rolf Messerschmidt (JEA) on behalf of City of Ludwigsburg
European Commission, Intelligent Energy Executive Agency (IEEA).May 2007

Urban structure has a great impact on transport demand. Approaches that integrate transport and urban planning may cause reduced transport and thus energy savings. SNOWBALL addresses two major specific barriers:the lack of multi-sectoral skills and institutional barriers. Professionals tend to be trained in specific sectoral applications, which can lead to sub-optimal planning solutions. Furthermore, skills such as evaluation of methods, consensus building, and communication are rarely trained. The examples of three partner cities (Trnava, Hilversum, Stockholm) show that these complementary skills make the difference in the successful implementation of new, sustainable planning. Key elements include a toolkit of integrated planning methods, a variety of workshops, and the development of national expert networks. The result of SNOWBALL will be that 6 cities will have developed an (integrated) urban plan, but, more importantly, that these cities will have acquired new skills and anchored new working procedures. Moreover, these cities will act as new examples for another set of cities to start integrated planning RATP.

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Energy Efficiency Business Week 2008

The ECODRIVEN final conference took place on the 12th november 2008 in the framework of the Czech Energy Efficiency Business Week in Prague (CZ). The Energy Efficiency Business Week is one of the most important conferences in the field of effective use of energy in the area of Central and Eastern Europe. For one afternoon the project ECODRIVEN and the Ecodriving activities in the partner countries took the center stage at the EEBW

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The content of this report and of the related web site is based on the educational design workshop “Smart Mobility. Rethinking the Paris Bus Line,” held at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Media Lab, Spring 2005. MAS 966, in collaboration with RATP, Paris. This report, more then a structured linear text should serve as an instrument to “think with” that reflect a collective work and a collaboration process between MIT and RATP.

Paris Mayor Bertrand Delanoë announced yesterday that that program will be in place by the end of 2009 and will consist of some 4,000 cars which program users can pick up from and return to any one of 700 locations throughout the city. Users can either pay a monthly fee or pay as you go by using their monthly transport cards. The particular model of electric car has yet to be determined

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