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William Mitchell, 2007.

Following a historical journey through the different physical structures of cities, we arrive in the 21st century, where cities have all the sub-systems that are needed by living organisms: structural skeletons, various layers of protective skins and artificial nervous systems. In this context, to create new intelligence in the cities, we need to combine software and digital telecommunications networks, ubiquitously embedded intelligence, and sensors and identifiers.

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By Claire Cain Miller, 2013.

HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW calls data science “the sexiest job in the 21st century,” and by most accounts this hot new field promises to revolutionize industries from business to government, health care to academia.

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Zygmunt Bauman, 2012.

Sometime in the late 1920s or early 1930s of the last century, Antonio Gramsci recorded in one of the many notebooks he filled during his long incarceration in the Turi prison1: ‘The crisis consists precisely in the fact that the old is dying and the new cannot be born; in this interregnum a great variety of morbid symptoms appear’. The term ‘interregnum’ was originally used to denote a time-lag separating the death of one royal sovereign from the enthronement of the successor. These used to be the main occasions on which the past generations experienced (and customarily expected) a rupture in the otherwise monotonous continuity of government, law, and social order.

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By Julio Aramberri and Liang Chunmei, 2012.
Journal of China Tourism

Growing attention has been paid in the general tourism literature to destination imaging and branding. Usually the literature refers to images of developing destinations among international travelers from developed countries and ignores the increasing number of tourists from developing countries and their images of destinations abroad. This article takes a different tack in analyzing how three Chinese travel magazines present Europe to their audiences. Reverse analysis suggests that these consumer media pattern Europe in a way similar to that in which most Western media portray exotic destinations. Additionally it examines how such a benchmark is adapted to the idiosyncratic expectations of the local audience.

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European Knowledge Centre for Youth Policy

This report answers the following questions: How does the European youth population think, feel & live in this day and age? How can you reach 14 to 25 year old consumers more effectively with your message or product? How can you translate this into a cutting-edge marketing strategy? How can you keep the target group’s attention?

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Robert Cliquet, 2003

This paper will look at recent trends in family structures and dynamics throughout the life course, discuss the context of those trends, and consider possible future developments in the new Millennium. Three major groups of family characteristics will be distinguished: those pertaining to relational behaviour (partnership), to reproductive behaviour (parenthood) and to intergenerational behaviour, the latter mainly focused on the living conditions of older persons.

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Open Society Institute, 2009

The Open Society Institute’s “At Home in Europe: Muslims in EU cities” project sets out to understand the everyday experiences of ordinary Muslims living in 11 cities across Western Europe. The 11 cities covered by the research are: Antwerp, Amsterdam, Berlin, Copenhagen, Hamburg, Leicester, London, Marseille, Paris, Rotterdam and Stockholm. The research focuses on the impact of public policies aimed at improving integration and social inclusion.

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Anna Lindh Euro-Mediterranean Foundation for Dialogue between Cultures and Gallup consultancy  

The Anna Lindh Report "EuroMed Intercultural Trends 2010" is a public opinion poll on intercultural trends and values in the Euro-Mediterranean region. For the first time, this report sheds light on the reality of intercultural relations in the region. Coordinated by the Anna Lindh Euro-Mediterranean Foundation for Dialogue between Cultures and the consultancy Gallup about 13,000 people from across the two shores of the Mediterranean were asked in this opinion poll.

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Mark Aguiar and Erik Hurst
University of Rochester
University of Chicago, May 2008.

This paper summarizes the key findings about trends in individual time use over the last four decades for prime age individuals. In particular, we recount key findings from Aguiar and Hurst (2007 and 2008). In particular, we show that leisure has increased for both men and women since 1965 by roughly 5 and 3.5 hours per week, respectively. However, most of these gains occurred prior to 1985 and the trends for women have some been somewhat reversed over the last decade. In addition, we show that for both men and women, leisure inequality has increased, particularly after 1985. In particular, since 1965, lower educated men and women have experienced substantial leisure increases, while their higher educated counterparts have experienced little, if any, leisure gains. The trends in leisure were similar across educational groups were similar up through the early 1980s and then started diverging sharply. The increase in leisure inequality, particularly for men, has matched the timing of the well-documented increases in wage and consumption inequality.

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BBC, 15th July 2011

A series of maps illustrating how Twitter and Flickr are used around the world have been created. Produced by Eric Fischer the maps show red dots for Flickr photos, blue dots for Twitter posts and white dots for both. This map of the world shows just how popular the social networking sites are in Europe - particularly the UK - and in North America.

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Directorate-General for Research,
European Commission, 2004.

The report focuses on the broad trends that affect the High Education/Research (HE/R) system across Europe. HE/R system should be understood here in a broad sense, which is certainly not restricted to universities. It includes that various institutional agents that directly participate in the production of knowledge (basic and applied research, technological development and innovation) and in the provision of any level of higher education (undergraduate, graduate, postgraduate and continuing education, in the arts and sciences as well as in the professions).

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R. Scase. Institute for Social and Economic Research, University of Essex
EC. Directorate-General JRC, 1999

This paper highlights some of the major trends that will affect the future of Europe. As to be expected there are forces of both continuity and change of convergence and divergence. Out of these will emerge mosaics of living characterised by greater opportunities and choices in life styles, work patterns and personal relations. Cultural traditions will have less impact upon life styles but this will not lead to homogeneity either within or across national borders. Individuals are likely to become more cosmopolitan and European in their outlook but not by rejecting many local loyalties and personal attachments. Changing patterns of employment, the growth of entrepreneurship and self-employment and the more ‘transient’ nature of personal relations will generate more self-reliant and individualistic cultures. Personal mobility will be greater and social networks more widely constituted. The internet and other ICTS will play a key role in work, employment and personal life styles. If the direction of change within specific life spheres is uncertain, the overall direction of change is likely to be towards “mosaic living”

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