By Beramendi, P., 2007


A long tradition of research has shown decentralized political structures as an important cause behind lower levels of redistribution and higher levels of inequality. This article offers an alternative interpretation of the association between
fragmented fiscal structures and higher levels of inequality. I argue that the distributive effects of decentralization depend on the preexisting territorial patterns of inequality. Therefore, the political choice between alternative fiscal structures is largely driven by their expected distributive consequences. As a result, the territorial structure of inequality becomes an important factor to explain why some fiscal structures are more integrated than others. Two mechanisms link regional income distributions and preferences about the decentralization of redistributive policy: differences in the demand for redistribution associated with interregional income differences, and differences in the demand for social insurance associated with the incidence of labor market risks. I test the argument using a data set of fourteen countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development ~OECD! over the period 1980– 2000. In addition, I illustrate the potential of the approach by analyzing why social solidarity remains territorially fragmented in the European Union despite the fact that it has a common currency and a common market.

By Frank Biermann, Philipp Pattberg and Harro van Asselt, 2009


Most research on global governance has focused either on theoretical accounts of the overall phenomenon or on empirical studies of distinct institutions to solve particular governance challenges. Only very recently have scholars begun to investigate the middle level, that is, larger systems of institutions and governance mechanisms in particular areas of world politics, which are sometimes referred to as regime complexes, clusters, or networks.2 In this article, we conceive of such clusters of norms, principles, regimes and other institutions as the “governance architecture” of an issue area.3 We focus our analysis on one aspect of global governance architectures that, we argue, is turning into a major source of concern for observers and policy-makers alike: the “fragmentation” of governance in important issue areas of world politics. Our investigation is driven by an apparent lack of consensus in the academic literature on the consequences of fragmentation. In the different strands of academic research that we outline in this article, we and different predictions that range from a positive, afarmative assessment of fragmentation to a rather negative one.

By Anthony Edo, Yvonne Giesing, Jonathan Öztunc and Panu Poutvaara, 2017


Immigration has become one of the most divisive political issues in the United States, the United Kingdom, France and several other Western countries. We estimate the impact of immigration on voting for far-left and far-right parties in France, using panel data on presidential elections from 1988 to 2012. To derive causal estimates, we instrument more recent immigration flows by past settlement patterns in 1968. We find that immigration increases support for far-right candidates and has no robust effect on far-left voting. The increased support for far-right candidates is driven by low educated immigrants from non-Western countries.

By The Centre for Cross Border Studies, 2016


The work of the Centre for Cross Border Studies (CCBS) over the last year reflects the themes of referendum and remembrance. In the first half of 2016 was focused on addressing the issues raised by the (then) forthcoming Referendum on the UK’s membership of the European Union. In the second half of the year, it has been dominated by the many issues raised by the decision to Leave and its immediate and future impacts for the island of Ireland. In this Journal (2016) there are 7 articles and 6 reviews with different topics.