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Kristian Coates Ulrichsen, 2011.

This article examines the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states’ changing position within a global order itself in a state of flux following the global financial and economic crisis and a regional order facing the participatory pressures of the Arab Spring. It explores the nature of their engagement in reshaping international institutions and assesses the implications for structures of global governance. The paper investigates the internationalisation of the GCC states through deepening interdependencies with a multiplicity of external actors. Emerging ties of mutual interest revolve around more than just hydrocarbons, and the paper examines the role of food security in these new relationships. Finally, the paper assesses the impact of the Arab Spring on regional security and future trends in the Gulf States’ policy making at local, regional and international levels.


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By CNN, 2008.

The Maldives is an archipelago of almost 1,200 coral islands located south-southwest of India. Most of the islands lie just 4.9 feet (1.5 meters) above sea level. The United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has forecast a rise in sea levels of at least 7.1 inches (18 cm) by the end of the century. The island was badly hit by the December 2004 tsunami, which killed an estimated 273,800 people and left thousands missing across Asia and Africa.


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By Kay Böhme, Philippe Doucet, Tomasz Komornicki, Jacek Zaucha and Dariusz Świątek. 2011.

The main purpose of this note is to facilitate the process of strengthening the territorial dimension of the ¨Europe 2020¨strategy and other EU and national policies.Despite a general consensus on the importance of the territorial dimension for growth, policy processes in the field of territorial development are not sufficiently linked to those in other decisive fields.


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European Council of Town Planners, 2003

The European Council of Town Planners (ECTP) is confident that in the 21st century Europe will advance decisively towards the goal of integration. Within this developing framework, the ECTP presents a common and widely shared Vision on the future of European cities (Part A). This is a vision of a network of cities, which will: retain their cultural richness and diversity, resulting from their long history, linking the past through the present to the future; become connected in a multitude of meaningful and functional networks;remain creatively competitive whilst striving for complementarity and co-operation;contribute decisively to the well-being of their inhabitants and users; and integrate the man-made and the natural elements of the environment. Within the New Athens Charter 2003, the Vision also includes a framework for implementation (Part B) consisting of: a brief summary of the main issues and challenges that affect cities at the beginning of the third millennium; and the commitments required by spatial planners in realising the Vision. This 2003 version of the New Charter of Athens is addressed primarily to professional planners working throughout Europe and those concerned with the planning process - to give direction to their actions, for greater coherence in building a meaningful network of cities in Europe connected through time, at all levels and in all sectors.

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European Commission, 2010

Cities and metropolitan areas are the engines of economic development. They are also at the frontline when it comes to tackling obstacles to growth and employment, such as social exclusion and environmental degradation. The European Union contributes to the sustainable development of urban areas through a range of policies and initiatives which cover many areas of activity. In particular, the EU's Cohesion Policy, through the Structural Funds, plays a key role in underpinning the development and revitalisation of Europe’s towns and cities. And with integrated urban development, an increasingly important priority for the programmes financed across the EU's regions by the Structural Funds, it will continue to do so. This updated version is targeted at those working on urban issues in local and regional authorities, elected representatives, and all other stakeholders with an interest in urban development. It identifies initiatives which, under various EU policies, have both direct and indirect implications for the sustainable development of urban areas.

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