Timo Välilä, Economic and Financial Studies, European Investment Bank (EIB), 2011

Infrastructure investment is 1/3 of government investment in normal times. Extra fiscal infrastructure stimulus investment in EU-27 in 2009-10 maybe is €20-30 bn + EU, EIB. Government infrastructure investment is especially sensitive to cyclical changes in the fiscal stance

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ECORYS & Spiekermann & Wegener (S&W)

The Directorate General for Energy and Transport (DG TREN) designed and prepared a proposal for the renewed Community multi-annual Transport European Network Transport (TEN-T) programme for the period 2007-2013. This renewed multi-annual programme (MAP) TEN-T is required to undergo an ex ante evaluation. This report describes the results of this evaluation. The primary objective of this study is to answer the following question - in what way can the relatively small (relative to other financing sources) budget of the MAP TEN-T make a speed -up the realisation of TEN-T while providing European Added Value.

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ECORYS & Spiekermann & Wegener (S&W)

The Directorate General for Energy and Transport (DG TREN) designed and prepared a proposal for the renewed Community multi-annual Transport European Network Transport (TEN-T) programme for the period 2007-2013. This renewed multi-annual programme (MAP) TEN-T is required to undergo an ex ante evaluation. This report describes the results of this evaluation. The primary objective of this study is to answer the following question - in what way can the relatively small (relative to other financing sources) budget of the MAP TEN-T make a speed -up the realisation of TEN-T while providing European Added Value.

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European Commission, 2002

The trans-European transport network represents an ambitious programme for the construction, modernisation and interconnection of Europe’s major transport infrastructures. The very large scale of the required investment, compared with the current volume of Member State and Community funding, makes it necessary to increase the concentration on key priorities and look for new financing to meet the target completion date of 2010.

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European Parliament's Committee on Transport and Tourism, January 2013

The literature reports on substantial planning and procurement failures of large transport infrastructure projects. This study should elaborate if and how TEN-T co-funded projects are affected by such operational problems and should provide recommendations on how these could be avoided for the next TEN-T programming period. Based on a literature review and ten case studies, this study elaborates recommendations for improving strategic planning, the choice and definition of projects as well as a sound assessment for transport and socio-economic impacts. The role of transparent information regarding ex-ante planning and ex-post success is studied to support EU co-funding decisions and the monitoring of project implementation

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Kai Böhme - SWECO, 2008

The European Regional Development Fund and the Cohesion Fund had altogether a budget of EUR 160 billion for the years 2000-2006. This study has established a database on ERDF and CF commitment data at NUTS 3 level (1,205 regions) for the 2 digit expenditure categories (20 categories). The aim of the database is to provide an overview of spending during the 2000- 2006 programming period, i.e. where it was focussed geographically and on what it has been spent? The programmes covered are the Cohesion Fund, ERDF Objective 1, ERDF Objective 2, URBAN and INTERREG IIIA. The total amount mapped in the database equals 98% of the 2000-2006 budget.

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PLANCO, 2003

Based on the data collected in the EU Member States and Candidate Countries, the results provide in-depth information on the technical status of the transport infrastructure where it forms part of the Trans-European Transport network. Both the existing and targeted TEN are covered, as defined in the 1996 Guidelines. The results identify the technical status of all sections of the land transport links and other components of the network.

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Steer Davies Gleave, August 2009

The main objective of this study is to assess the contribution that the ERDF has made to the development of the EU transport system. The study is to focus on the Member States set out in the table below that together account for over 95% of the ERDF resources allocated to transport infrastructure.

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AECOM at the request of the European Commission, February 2012

The main remit of this evaluation is to determine the role of the ISPA/Cohesion Fund interventions in terms of TEN-T network completion. From the information available, it is possible to make a quantitative assessment of the contribution of the ISPA/Cohesion Fund road and rail projects towards the TEN-T network within the EU-16 Member States, between 2000 and 2006.

In the road sector, the 99 approved road projects provided 4,214 km of new or rehabilitated road on the TEN-T network, contributing approximately 10% towards its total length. This contribution was greatest for the EU-10 Member States, in which the 57 projects contributed approximately 20% towards the TEN-T network.

For rail, the 112 approved projects provided 8,477km of new or rehabilitated track/infrastructure on the TEN-T network, or approximately 21% of its total length across these countries. Again, the greatest contribution was to the TEN-T networks within the EU-10 countries, in which the Cohesion Fund and ISPA projects improved almost 40% (over 6,000km).

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European Parliament's Committee on Transport and Tourism, 2011

This study provides an overview of the most important current and future financing instruments and sources for the EU’s transport infrastructure, in particular for the TEN-T. Furthermore, it includes a more analytical discussion of these instruments against the background of changes in the underlying policy framework.

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European Commission High Level Group on “extension of the major trans-European transport axes to the neighbouring countries and regions, 2006

A well functioning transport system connecting the European Union (EU) and the neighbouring countries is essential for sustainable economic growth and the wellbeing of all citizens in this part of the world. Better integration of national networks will foster regional cooperation and integration not only between the EU and its neighbours but also between the neighbouring countries themselves. Also, good transport connections in the EU as well as in the neighbouring countries are important for trade with Asia, sub-Saharan Africa or America. In short improving transport connections would be for the mutual benefit of both the European Union and its neighbouring partner countries.

The Group identified the following five major transnational axes:

  • Motorways of the Seas: linking the Baltic, Barents, Atlantic, Mediterranean, Black and the Caspian Sea areas as well as the littoral countries within the sea areas and with an extension through the Suez Canal towards the Red Sea. 
  • Northern axis: to connect the northern EU with Norway to the North and with Belarus and Russia and beyond to the East. A connection to the Barents region linking Norway through Sweden and Finland with Russia is also foreseen. 
  • Central axis: to link the centre of the EU to Ukraine and the Black Sea and through an inland waterway connection to the Caspian Sea. Connections towards Central Asia and the Caucasus are also foreseen, as well as  a direct connection to the Trans-Siberian railway and a link from the Don/Volga inland waterway to the Baltic Sea. 
  • South Eastern axis: to link the EU through the Balkans and Turkey to the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea as well as to Egypt and  the Red Sea. Access links to the Balkan countries as well as connections towards Russia, Iran and Iraq and the Persian Gulf are also foreseen.
  • South Western axis: to connect the south-western EU with Switzerland and Morocco and beyond, including the trans-Maghrebin  link connecting Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. An extension of the trans-Maghrebin link to Egypt as well as a connection from Egypt to the South towards other African countries are also foreseen

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Eurpean Commission, 2011

The European Commission adopted a roadmap of 40 concrete initiatives for the next decade to build a competitive transport system that will increase mobility, remove major barriers in key areas and fuel growth and employment. At the same time, the proposals will dramatically reduce Europe's dependence on imported oil and cut carbon emissions in transport by 60% by 2050. By 2050, key goals will include: No more conventionally-fuelled cars in cities; 40% use of sustainable low carbon fuels in aviation; at least 40% cut in shipping emissions; A 50% shift of medium distance intercity passenger and freight journeys from road to rail and waterborne transport; All of which will contribute to a 60% cut in transport emissions by the middle of the century.


Directorate-General for Energy and Transport
European Commission, 2009.

In 2001, the Commission issued a White Paper setting an agenda for the European transport policy throughout 2010. This programme was updated in the mid-term review of 2006. Approaching the end of the 10-year period, it is time to look further ahead and prepare the ground for later policy developments. Transport is a complex system that depends on multiple factors, including the pattern of human settlements and consumption, the organisation of production and the availability of infrastructure. Owing to this complexity,any intervention in the transport sector must be based on a long-term vision for the sustainable mobility of people and goods, not least because policies of a structural character take a long time to implement and must be planned well in advance. That is why transport policies for the next 10 years must be based on a reflection on the future of the transport system that embraces also the following decades. The Commission has launched such a reflection, comprising: an evaluation study on the European transport policy (ETP); a debate within three ‘focus groups’; a study (‘Transvisions’) identifying possible low-carbon scenarios for transport; and a consultation of stakeholders, notably through a highlevel stakeholders’ conference on 9 and 10 March 2009.

European Commission, 2009.

The Green Paper summarises the Commission's assessment of the TEN-T policy implementation so far and sets out options for its future development in the light of the new challenges. It brings infrastructural needs of the common transport policy more into focus, e.g: How to better interconnect and integrate all transport modes in order to enable efficient, safe, secure and sustainable co-modal transport services for passengers and goods? How to reflect measures towards an optimised infrastructure use (e.g. deployment of intelligent transport systems, pricing and taxation) in TEN-T planning? How to apply a truly European planning approach that concentrates on key Community objectives while taking due account of national rules and procedures as well as of the need for commercial freedom in responding to market needs. How to reflect, in the TEN-T, future needs of new technologies in the transport and energy sectors? How to reinforce Europe's infrastructure connections to the world and to Europe's neighbours? How to enhance the effectiveness of the instruments for policy implementation – both financial and non-financial?

Communication from the Directorate-General for Energy and Transport.

Cities all over Europe face similar problems (congestion, road safety, security, pollution, climate change due to CO2 emissions etc.) and these problems are increasing constantly. Inaction would result in Europe having to pay an even higher price both in economic and environmental terms, as well as for the health and quality of life of European citizens. The objectives of the European transport policy cannot be achieved without a contribution from urban transport. It is time to put urban mobility on the European agenda and open a new chapter in European transport policy. This is the reason why the Commission wishes to open a debate with citizens and all relevant stakeholders at the local, regional, national and European levels. This should result in concrete proposals to achieve a sustainable urban mobility in Europe.

Response to the public consultaton of the European Commission on a new Action Plan on Urban Mobility.

EU transport funding should be available for schemes aimed at introducing demand management schemes to cities: research, expertise exchange, system design and set-up costs could be supported from a European level. The EU should also support procurement of low-emission, fuel-efficient and quiet vehicles in public fleets. Training and guidance are needed for decision makers on the inclusion of environmental sustainability aspects in funding applications, transport planning and urban planning. The EU guidance on Sustainable Urban Transport Planning is an excellent starting point which should be further developed.

by the Science, Technology and Applications Group of the EU PV Technology Platform.

As the representative of urban, suburban and regional passenger public transport in Europe, UITP is particularly concerned by the growing gap in research efforts between the private car industry and public transport modes. UITP is convinced that a multimodal integrated public transport approach is necessary to develop sustainable urban transport systems.

Mateu Turró

This book is directed at a wide range of readers interested in transport and/or European policies. It gives an overview of the current problems and challenges facing the European transport system and explains how a new European policy on transport infrastructure is emerging. The author argues that strong action at the EU level is needed to prevent the collapse of long distance transport. Without adequate measures in the transport sector to cope with the increase of trade and mobility associated with the development of the Single Market, European integration will stagnate. The book includes an overview of the actions undertaken in the past and the first comprehensive critical analysis of the Guidelines on trans-European transport networks (TEN's) decided by the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament in July 1996. From this, the author proposes a framework, based on efficiency, sustainability and cohesion objectives, for the establishment of a new multimodal TEN that would supersede the current TENs design. He pays particular attention to the transport implications of both the accession to the EU of Central and Eastern European countries and of the strengthening of the links with the Mediterranean neighbours. After a discussion of the political and financial difficulties of implementing TENs, he makes some pratical proposals regarding the interaction between European institutions and the Member States vis-à-vis the new transport infrastructure policy. Finally, the critical questions of decision making and financing of major transport infrastructure projects are analysed to ascertain the many transformations required to introduce market rules in the sector, in particular those needed to attract private financing, and he concludes with some proposals for major changes in the role of EU institutions.

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Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee of the Regions

The liberalisation of the European air transport sector is a major success: air traffic in Europe has tripled between 1980 and 2000. Between 1992 and 2005 the number of intra-EU routes has increased by 150%. European citizens can now enjoy a diversified range of air services at an affordable price. Concrete measures have been taken by the European Community in order to sustain this growth whilst maintaining a high level of safety and efficiency: The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) was created in 2002 in order to rationalise European activities in the field of air worthiness; The Single European Sky legislative package adopted in 2004 aims at comprehensively reforming of the Air Traffic Management sector, with a view to increasing the safety and efficiency of the European sky.

Directorate General for Energy and Transport. EC 2008.

An original Single European Sky (SES1) package came into force in 2004. At the time the greatest problem in air traffic management was congestion in the air and subsequent delays hence it also became the main focus of SES1, together with safety. During the past years the ATM (Air Traffic Management) situation has changed somewhat and whilst safety and capacity are still major issues, the picture has become more varied with a greater emphasis on environment and more recently due to the fuel price crisis, on cost efficiency. Additionally, the regulatory approach has been changed due to requests from Member States and stakeholders for a less prescriptive approach ("better regulation"). That is why the new legislation would put more emphasis on the goals, than the means to reach the goals. This document gives a short outline of the main new initiative; it is not exhaustive and does not cover the relevant parts of SES1, which still remain in force.