By Karolina Kitzman, 2015


The role of the third sector, which affects the development of civil society, is greater than before. At the same time is observed growth of the need for responsible use of management techniques in the crisis economic environment, which return to ethical values. Despite many differences between market and non-governmental actors, turbulent economic situation affects more intense relationships of the business sector and NGOs. The article presents conditions to support cross-sector cooperation in assessing the significance of the development of the relationship between the above mentioned entities. Author submits proposal of structuring by selection of important cooperation between business and NGOs theories and results from own study, conducted between 2013 and 2014 (grants from the WUT Faculty of Management). Aim of the paper is to find reasons for cooperation between business and NGOs as indispensable element in sustainable management.

By Gábor Harangoz and Gyula Zilahy, 2015


International environmental policy has long recognized the role of both the civil and business sectors in the implementation of sustainable development, as reflected by the Earth Summit in 1992 (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro) and the resulting publication of the Agenda 21 action plan. The importance of civil organizations is also stressed by the European Union's environmental policy, as indicated by, for instance, the Sixth Environmental Action Plan, which was accepted in 2002. Nevertheless, the common understanding of how non-governmental organizations may influence corporate environmental behavior, especially that of small and medium-sized enterprises, remains limited. This paper presents the results of research examining the relationships between nongovernmental organizations and businesses based on the stakeholder theory of the firm. The results show that small and medium-sized enterprises rank the importance of different stakeholders similarly to larger businesses and often engage in cooperation with non-governmental organizations. It is also demonstrated that cooperative strategies constitute an important and effective component of nongovernmental organizations' behavior toward businesses and that the indirect influence of the civil sector is as important as its direct impact. The results contribute to the development of the stakeholder theory of the firm and help inform practical decision makers about how to improve relationships between
business and non-governmental organizations.

By ICDF, 2002


With the development of a diversified society, nongovernmental organizations are playing an increasingly important and dynamic role in the international community. The growth of NGOs reflects a new enthusiasm on the part of citizens to engage more directly in public problem solving. The 1999 Human Development Report, which focused on the increasing difficulties of global governance, described how the lack of cohesive developmental policies and strategies has heightened the focus on NGOs in solving global problems.

By Terrence Guay, Jonathan P. Doh and Graham Sinclair, 2004


In this article, we document the growing influence of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the realm of socially responsible investing (SRI). Drawing from ethical and economic perspectives on stakeholder management and agency theory, we develop a framework to understand how and when NGOs will be most influential in shaping the ethical and social responsibility orientations of business using the emergence of SRI as the primary influencing vehicle. We find that NGOs have opportunities to influence corporate conduct via direct, indirect, and interactive influences on the investment community, and that the overall influence of NGOs as major actors in socially responsible investment is growing, with attendant consequences for corporate strategy, governance, and social performance.