Directorate General for Energy and Transport. EC 2008.

An original Single European Sky (SES1) package came into force in 2004. At the time the greatest problem in air traffic management was congestion in the air and subsequent delays hence it also became the main focus of SES1, together with safety. During the past years the ATM (Air Traffic Management) situation has changed somewhat and whilst safety and capacity are still major issues, the picture has become more varied with a greater emphasis on environment and more recently due to the fuel price crisis, on cost efficiency. Additionally, the regulatory approach has been changed due to requests from Member States and stakeholders for a less prescriptive approach ("better regulation"). That is why the new legislation would put more emphasis on the goals, than the means to reach the goals. This document gives a short outline of the main new initiative; it is not exhaustive and does not cover the relevant parts of SES1, which still remain in force.

Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament, 2008.

The ATM Master Plan provides the roadmap for the development and deployment phases of the SESAR programme which constitutes the technological pillar of the Single European Sky policy. SESAR aims at developing the new generation air traffic management system capable of ensuring safety and efficiency of air transport throughout Europe over the next 30 years.

Motoring Towards 2050 – Roads and Reality. RAC Foundation, UK 2008

The use of roads depends on transport modes used by people and those moving goods. Clearly rail, water and airborne transport do not make direct demands on the road network, but in many situations access to their terminals requires road transport. The use of public transport depends on its price and service characteristics in relation to current travel needs and these in turn depend on modal characteristics network coverage and capacity. This note looks at the use of public transport today, how it has changed over recent years and the role it is likely to play in future.

Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Karlsruhe.(ISI)
Funded by European Commission. 2007-2009

iTREN-2030 will extend the forecasting and assessment capabilities of existing tools for the analysis of transport policies. The project will: Develop a linkage between the existing transport analysis tool TRANS-TOOLS and the POLES tool for energy technology and prices, the TREMOVE tool for environmental assessment and vehicle fleet development and the ASTRA tool for studying the economic effects of sectoral policies. Generate a consistent baseline, reflected by each of the four tools, for technology, transport, energy, environment and economic development until 2030.

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Mapping policy for electricity, water and transport. OECD 2007

This publication is the final report on the two-year OECD Futures Project “Global Infrastructure Needs: Prospects and Implications for Public and Private Actors”. It presents the main findings and policy recommendations from the project, as well as expert papers that assess the future viability of current business models in electricity, water, rail, road and urban public transport infrastructure sectors

Download this file (Infrastructure_to_2030.pdf)Infrastructure_to_2030.pdf[ ]

This paper presents an overview of European policy on interconnected cross-border transport networks as well as of severe problems in estimating empirically the avalanche of goods movements in the European Union (EU). In particular, it deals with the Transalpine freight transport case, which represents one of the most challenging operational and policy issues of the present and future - both international (EU) and national (the Alpine countries) - freight transport developments.

Download this file (freight_transport.pdf)freight_transport.pdf[ ]

Commission Staff Working Document. EC 2007.

This document reports on the results of the assessment of a series of actions the European Commission is considering carrying out to improve the efficiency of services for freight transport logistics in the EU and to secure that these develop in a manner that is in accordance with the concerns over the health of our natural and social environments. These actions may be incorporated in an EU Logistics Action Plan, as called for in the June 2006 Communication on Freight Transport Logistics.

European Conference of Ministers of Transport, 2003

The Seminar Managing the Fundamental Drivers of Transport Demand was organised by the Belgian Presidency of the ECMT in order to prepare the ground for a debate between Ministers on sustainable transport polices at the 2003 Council of Ministers. This meeting marked the 50th anniversary of the Conference and was a time for taking stock of achievements and looking forward to the key challenges for transport policy in the coming years. The contribution of the sector to more sustainable development is clearly a major part of that challenge. The conclusions of the seminar completed the dossier for Ministers on integrated transport and environment policy, complementing conclusions on the reform of transport charges and taxes and recommendations on integrated assessment and effective decision making support, which lies at the heart of more integrated policy making.

European Environment Agency (EEA) 2008

The transport sector in Europe continues to increase its emissions of greenhouse gases, which remain a key challenge in creating a low-carbon future. The main cause of increased emissions is the growth in transport demand; freight and passenger traffic continue to grow at a very fast pace, outstripping gains made through fuel and energy efficiency. The vast majority of actions to reduce the carbon footprint of the transport sector has been taken within the transport sector itself and ignore the key drivers which create the demand for transport. A better understanding of the reasons behind the growth in transport demand is therefore crucial to formulating effective measures to manage and reduce the emissions.

European Commission, 2001.

The Transport White Paper adopted by the European Commission on 12 September 2001 paints a realistic picture of the present situation with regard to transport and sets out an ambitious action programme comprising 60 or so measures between now and 2010.

To see more information...

Download this file (EC_WhitePaper2001.pdf)EC_WhitePaper2001.pdf[ ]

European Commission, 2006.

From a slow start, the European Union’s transport policy has developed rapidly over the past 15 years. The objectives of EU transport policy, from the transport White Paper of 1992 via the White Paper of 2001 to today’s Communication, remain valid: to help provide Europeans with efficient, effective transportation systems.

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Freight Transport Logistics focuses on the planning, organisation, management, control and execution of freight transport operations in the supply chain. It is one of the drivers of European competitiveness and thus a prime contributor to the renewed Lisbon agenda on growth and jobs. Production and distribution networks depend on high-quality, efficient logistics chains to organise the transport of raw materials and finished goods across the EU and beyond. It is primarily a business related activity and a task for industry. Nevertheless, the authorities have a clear role to play in creating the appropriate framework conditions.


The Commission's 2001 White Paper on the European transport policy for 2010 [COM(2001) 370: "European Transport policy for 2010: time to decide"] noted the need for further measures to combat emissions from transport and stated that the Commission would encourage the development of a market for "clean vehicles". The mid-term review [COM(2006) 314: “Keep Europe moving – Sustainable mobility for our continent”] announced that the EU will stimulate environmentally friendly innovation i.a. by successive Euro norms and by the promotion of clean vehicles on the basis of public procurement.


PricewaterhouseCoopers Advisory (PwC) presents a study regarding an Impact Assessment on a new approach for the cleaner and more energy efficient vehicles directive proposal. This study was prepared by PwC for the European Commission of the European Communities, Directorate General for Transport and Energy. PwC does not accept or assume any liability or duty of care for any other purpose or to any other party. PwC shall not be liable in respect of any loss, damage or expense of whatsoever nature which may be caused by any use of this study. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not represent any official view of the Commission.


When amending Directive 1999/62/EC on charging heavy goods vehicles (HGV) for the use of infrastructure in May 2006, the European Parliament and the Council stated1 that: “No later than 10 June 2008, the Commission shall present, after examining all options including environment, noise, congestion and health-related costs, a generally applicable, transparent and comprehensible model for the assessment of all external costs to serve as the basis for future calculations of infrastructure charges”. The amending Directive adds that: “This model shall be accompanied by an impact analysis of the internalisation of external costs for all modes of transport and a strategy for a stepwise implementation of the model for all modes of transport. The report and the model shall be accompanied, if appropriate, by proposals to the European Parliament and the Council for further revision of this Directive”

KPMG, January 2013

KPMG International’s 14th Global Automotive Executive Survey, which surveyed 200 auto executives from 31 countries, found that the cost of batteries and recharging the vehicles was a major barrier to those considering purchasing electric vehicles.  62 percent said that consumers wanted their vehicle to last for as long as possible, signalling a need for mature and sustainable technologies. The survey also warned new trends in globalisation, rapid urbanisation and changing consumer behaviour will cause a big shift in the automotive landscape over the next five years. The collective impact is expected to be felt across the entire automotive value chain, and calls for sweeping changes to automakers’ and their suppliers’ business models.

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CE Delft, July 2012

The report examines and supports the Commission’s claims that the proposed 95g limit for 2020 would boost the EU economy by €12 billion per average year between 2020 and 2030, accompanied by a €9bn increase in expenditure on labour across the economy. It also says reducing fuel consumption will mean Europe will have to import less oil, making it less vulnerable to price shocks and improving its trade balance. T&E cars officer Greg Archer said: ‘This report not only dispels industry’s claims that reducing CO2 emissions from cars would have a negative impact on jobs and competitiveness, it makes the opposite point – that low-carbon cars can boost the sluggish EU economy. This will happen in various ways, ranging from investment in the development and manufacturing of fuel-efficient technologies, to leaving more money in the pockets of car owners thanks to lower fuel bills. This money could in turn be spent in ways that create extra jobs across the EU economy.’

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KPMG and the Center for Automotive Research (CAR), 2012

Autonomous cars may dramatically reshape the competitive landscape, human interaction with vehicles, and the future design of roads and cities – and they may be sooner than you think. The report Self-Driving Car: The Next Revolution is based on interviews with leading technologists, automotive industry leaders, academicians, and regulators - as well as research and analysis of industry trends. The study examines the forces of change, the current and emerging technologies, the path to bring these innovations to market, the likelihood that they will achieve wide adoption from consumers, and their potential impact on the automotive ecosystem.

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Ed Pike, International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), August 2012

This paper identifies methods to determine e-drive vehicle efficiency, energy supply “well-to-tank” GHG intensity, e-drive vehicle miles traveled, and mode split for plug-in hybrids, which together can provide a basis for calculating edrive upstream emissions. Additionally, it highlights some needs for more and better data—e.g., test cycles used to determine e-drive vehicle efficiency should reflect urbanization trends, aggressive driving, and cabin climate control.Procedures to account for GHG emissions related to electric vehicles can now be established with reasonable accuracy, based on real-world vehicle efficiency, energy supply carbon intensity, and vehicle usage data. As more experience operating EVs yields more data, the methodology can be updated, but in the meantime it can provide appropriate signals to guide policymakers's, automakers’, and consumers’ efforts to reduce GHG emissions.

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ICCT website 

ORIGAMI 7FP Consortium, TRI, Mcrit et al., 2012

The ORIGAMI 7FP project is concerned with improvements in long-distance door-to-door passenger transport chains through improved co-modality and intermodality. The project addresses the potential for greater efficiency and reduced environmental impact of passenger transport by judicious encouragement of dervice and mode integration, cooperation and, where appropriate, competition in the provision of these local connections. Thus the project encompasses physical characteristics of the network, characteristics of the modes, the coordination of operators as well as integration, and the cohesiveness of multi-modal networks. The project includes the production of list of best practices, focused on infrastructure, service management and regulatory strategies applied to improve long-distance intermodal and co-modal transport. Selected cases imply significant improvements in long-distance door-to-door passenger transport chains. ORIGAMI case studies are published as a web-directory, following a systematic structure, with links to original information sources and institutions and companies involved. Cases can be browsed using different criteria throughout the different menus on the right hand of this webpage. 

Passenger solutions database
ORIGAMI Project website