By R. R .Ernst, 2008


The problem of social fragmentation is growing today worldwide. It is spreading within communities, within countries, between countries, and between cultural, or better ideological, regions. The social divide on multiple levels is a highly undesirable development that has already led to instability. It will become undoubtedly the source of further violent unrest.

By Ingo Piepers, 2008


The process of social expansion in Europe can be better understood with various concepts related to complexity science. Findings of exploratory research show a typical process of social expansion in Europe in the period 1495-1945, in which wars have been instrumental. Furthermore, this research enables the identification of vulnerabilities, and the conditions for success in a process of social expansion.

By Eirini Flouri, Emily Midouhas, Heather Joshi, Alice Sullivan, 2015


Using data from 7,776 Millennium Cohort Study children in England, we examined the role of neighbourhood social fragmentation in trajectories of emotional/behavioural problems at ages three, five and seven, and in moderating the association of children's emotional/behavioural problems with neighbourhood poverty, family poverty and adverse family events. Allowing for key background characteristics, social fragmentation generally added little to explain child outcomes, but there were fewer conduct problems among children in poor neighbourhoods with less fragmentation. Surprisingly, in less fragmented neighbourhoods poor families tended to feel less safe and more distressed, which was associated with children's conduct problems.

By Demetrios G. Papademetriou & Meghan Benton, 2016


The fever appears to have broken in Europe, as the seemingly relentless flows of migrants and refugees have abated. But this is a fragile, and possibly illusory, calm. Although most European countries - especially those of arrival and final destination - now have the breathing space they need to reduce adjudication backlogs and bottlenecks, the inability of European Union (EU) institutions to forge a regional solution to the migration crisis has exposed deeper cracks in the European project. And as public services and communities grapple with the scale, pace, and evolving nature of migration flows, several countries feel that they are doing far more than their fair share. 
Despite the sense that too many crises are unfolding at once, some countries and sectors of society remain optimistic that newcomers will inject vital human capital into aging workforces. The lessons of history, however, suggest that the integration of newcomers into European labor markets—and communities—will be neither straightforward nor complete. Although some groups have performed remarkably well, the general story across the continent is one of persistent socioeconomic gaps between natives and migrants.