By European Parliament, 2017


After centuries of religious wars, many European states perceived themselves in the late 19th and 20th centuries as the avant-garde of secularism worldwide. They therefore considered that religion would play an ever-decreasing role in politics. As a result, when the EU institutions were established they had no mechanisms for dealing with religious issues. Nevertheless, Europe has had major religious conflicts to face since 11 September 2001 and the Jyllands-Posten Prophet cartoons controversy in 2005. Under the Lisbon Treaty, mechanisms have been put in place to organise dialogue between the EU institutions and the representatives of confessional and non-confessional organisations in Europe. In 2013, the EU published guidelines to mainstream its approach to the promotion and protection of freedom of religion or belief (FoRB), and in 2016, Ján Figeľ was appointed Special Envoy for FoRB outside the EU. In the EU Member States and the United States alike, there is a growing interest in improving understanding of and engaging with religious organisations. This interest is key as the number of people for whom religion is an important part of identity is rising worldwide, alongside increasingly uneasy co-existence between followers of different religions, and important shifts in global religious demography.

By Léonce Bekemans, 2002


This case study, talks about the relation between globalisation and culture from a European perspective and touch upon some of the issues related to this relationship, the challenges that are ahead and the possibilities to deal with it in a more sustainable and justified manner. The article is divided into three parts. I start with some thoughts concerning the concepts of culture and globalisation, their relation and impact and introduce some ethical considerations to the conceptual framework. In a second part I focus on the specificity of the European model of integration and cultural diversity, in particular on the existing European cultural practice and its prospects. In a last part, I try to give some tentative answers to Europe's challenges in the globalisation culture debate and suggest some ways for re-integrating an ethical dimension in the debate and revitalising Europe's role as a global actor in intercultural dialogue.

By Howard Hughes and Danielle Allen, 2005


Countries of Central and Eastern Europe that have emerged from experiences of communist government have had to re-adjust to consequent shifts in tourism flows. Cultural tourism has been seen to have particular importance not only as a new growth market but also, for political reasons, as a means of producing favourable images of these countries. Tourist board representatives in tourist-generating countries are key agents in the image formation process. The views of such agents in the UK were ascertained in this paper in order to determine their perceptions of cultural tourism as part of their country’s product offer, the rationale behind the promotion of this tourism and their awareness of the consequences. This was done by interview with representatives of a number of countries. It was concluded that cultural tourism was seen very positively and it was of importance to all but it was seen in market rather than in political terms. Tourist board interviewees had a particular ‘heritage’ view of cultural tourism and recognised few problems associated with the use of culture for tourism purposes.

By Joel Mokyr, 2017


The significance of the cultural and technological developments in Europe in enhancing interconnectivity has been discussed at great length, even if the terminology is not always the same. The emergence of a “public sphere,” a term coined by philosopher Jürgen Habermas, has caught the eye of historians. It is often equated with the Republic of Letters, and many authors have stressed how it differed as a public space from the territorial state (Goodman, 1994, pp. 14–15, 49). Such scholars as Jacob (1997, 2000b) and Stewart (1992, 1998, 2004) have made much of the emergence of a culture of public science, in which science was discussed and studied, in the hope—remote, perhaps, in most cases—that one day it could be put to good use. Meanwhile, it was to be enjoyed and its practice conveyed a certain social prestige. With some luck and a lot of patience and persistence, public science could eventually be transformed into technological progress and economic progress.